• Rockland, K.S., Kaas, J.H., and Peters, A., eds., pp. 205–241. New
York: Plenum (1997).
• Nunn, J.A., Gregory, L.J., Brammer, M., Williams, S.C.R., Parslow,
D.M., Morgan, M.J., Morris, R.G., Bullmore, E.T., Baron-Cohen, S.,
and Gray, J.A. “Functional magnetic resonance imaging of synesthesia:
Activation of V4/V8 by spoken words,” Nature Neurosci. 5:371–
375 (2002).
• O’Connor, D.H., Fukui, M.M., Pinsk, M.A., and Kastner, S. “Attention
modulates responses in the human lateral geniculate nucleus,”
Nature Neurosci. 5:1203–1209 (2002).
• O’Craven, K. and Kanwisher, N. “Mental imagery of faces and places
activates corresponding stimulus-specific brain regions,” J. Cogn. Neursci.
12:1013–1023 (2000).
• ¨Ohman, A. and Soares, J.J. “Emotional conditioning to masked stimuli:
Expectancies for aversive outcomes following nonrecognized fearrelevant
stimuli,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 127:69–82 (1998).
• Ojemann, G.A., Ojemann, S.G., and Fried, I. “Lessons from the human
brain: Neuronal activity related to cognition,” Neuroscientist
4:285–300 (1998).
• Ojima, H. “Terminal morphology and distribution of corticothalamic
fibers originating from layers 5 and 6 of cat primary auditory cortex,”
Cerebral Cortex 4:646–663 (1994).
• O’Keefe, J. and Nadel, L. The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map. Oxford,
UK: Clarendon (1978).
• O’Keefe, J. and Recce, M.L. “Phase relationship bteween hippocampal
place units and the EEG theta rhythm,” Hippocampus 3:317–330
• Ono, H. and Barbeito, R. “Ultocular discrimination is not sufficient
for utrocular identification,” Vision Res. 25:289–299 (1985).
• O’Regan, J.K. “Solving the ‘real’ mysteries of visual perception: The
world as an outside memory,” Canadian J. Psychol. 46:461–488
• O’Regan, J.K. and No¨e, A. “A sensorimotor account of vision and
visual consciousness,” Behav. Brain Sci. 24:939–1001 (2001).
• O’Regan, J.K., Rensink, R.A., and Clark, J.J. “Change-blindness as
a result of mudsplashes,” Nature 398:34 (1999).
• O’Shea, R.P. and Corballis, P.M. “Binocular rivalry between complex
stimuli in split-brain observers,” Brain & Mind 2:151–160 (2001).
• Oxbury, J., Polkey, C.E., and Duchowny, M., eds. Intractable Focal
Epilepsy. Philadelphia: Saunders (2000).
• Pagels, H. The Dreams of Reason. New York: Simon and Schuster
• Palm, G. Neural Assemblies: An Alternative Approach to Artificial
Intelligence. Berlin: Springer (1982).
• Palm, G. “Cell assemblies as a guideline for brain research,” Concepts
Neurosci. 1:133–147 (1990).
• Palmer, L.A., Jones, J.P., and Stepnoski, R.A. “Striate receptive fields
as linear filters: Characterization in two dimensions of space.” In: The
Neural Basis of Visual Function. Leventhal, A.G., ed., pp. 246–265.
Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press (1991).
• Palmer, S. Vision Science: Photons to Phenomenology. Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press (1999).
• Pantages, E. and Dulac, C. “A novel family of candidate pheromone
receptors in mammals,” Neuron 28:835–845 (2000).
• Parasuraman, R., ed. The Attentive Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press (1998).
• Parker, A.J. and Krug, K. “Neuronal mechanisms for the perception
of ambiguous stimuli,” Curr. Opinion Neurobiol. 13:433–439 (2003).
• Parker, A.J. and Newsome, W.T. “Sense and the single neuron: Probing
the physiology of perception,” Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 21:227–277
• Parra, G., Gulyas, A.I., and Miles, R. “How many subtypes of inhibitory
cells in the hippocampus?” Neuron 20:983–993 (1998).
• Parvizi, J. and Damasio, A.R. “Consciousness and the brainstem,”
Cognition 79:135–159 (2001).
• Pashler, H.E. The Psychology of Attention. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press (1998).
• Passingham, R. The Frontal Lobes and Voluntary Action. Oxford,
UK: Oxford University Press (1993).
• Pastor, M.A. and Artieda, J., eds. Time, Internal Clocks, and Movement.
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier (1996).
• Paulesu, E., Harrison, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Watson, J.D., Goldstein,
L., Heather, J., Frackowiak, R.S.J., and Frith, C.D. “The physiology
of coloured hearing. A PET activation study of colour-word synaesthesia,”
Brain 118:661–676 (1995).
• Payne, B.R., Lomber, S.G., Villa, A.E., and Bullier, J. “Reversible deactivation
of cerebral network components,” Trends Neurosci. 19:535–
542 (1996).
• Pedley, T.A. and Guilleminault, C. “Episodic nocturnal wanderings
responsive to anticonvulsant drug therapy,” Ann. Neurol. 2:30–35
• Penfield, W. The Mystery of the Mind. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press (1975).(邦訳)塚田裕三, 山河宏訳,脳と心の正体,
• Penfield, W. and Jasper, H. Epilepsy and the Functional Anatomy of
the Human Brain. Boston: Little & Brown (1954).
• Penfield, W. and Perot, P. “The brain’s record of auditory and visual
experience: A final summary and discussion,” Brain 86:595–696
• Penrose, R. The Emperor’s New Mind. Oxford, UK: Oxford University
Press (1989).(邦訳)林一訳,皇帝の新しい心: コンピュータ・心・
• Penrose, R. Shadows of the Mind. Oxford, UK: Oxford University
Press (1994).(邦訳)林一訳,心の影: 意識をめぐる未知の科学を探
る1, 2,みすず書房(2001, 2002).
• Perenin, M.T. and Rossetti, Y. “Grasping without form discrimination
in a hemianopic field,” Neuroreport 7:793–797 (1996).
• Perez-Orive, J., Mazor, O., Turner, G.C., Cassenaer, S., Wilson, R.I.,
and Laurent, G. “Oscillations and sparsening of odor representation
in the mushroom body,” Science 297:359–365 (2002).
• Perrett, D.I., Hietanen, J.K., Oram, M.W., and Benson, P.J. “Organization
and functions of cells responsive to faces in the temporal
cortex,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 335:23–30 (1992).
• Perry, E., Ashton, H., and Young, A., eds. Neurochemistry of Consciousness.
Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins (2002).
• Perry, E., Walker, M., Grace, J., and Perry, R. “Acetylcholine in
mind: A neurotransmitter correlate of consciousness,” Trends Neurosci.
22:273–280 (1999).
• Perry, E. and Young, A. “Neurotransmitter networks.” In: Neurochemistry
of Consciousness. Perry, E., Ashton, H., and Young, A.,
eds., pp. 3–23. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins (2002).
• Pessoa, L. and DeWeerd, P., eds. Filling-In: From Perceptual Completion
to Cortical Reorganization. New York: Oxford University Press
• Pessoa, L., Thompson, E., and No¨e, A. “Finding out about filling in:
A guide to perceptual completion for visual science and the philosophy
of perception,” Behavioral and Brain Sci. 21:723–802 (1998).
• Peterhans, E. “Functional organization of area V2 in the awake monkey.”
In: Cerebral Cortex, Vol 12. Rockland, K.S., Kaas, J.H., and
Peters, A., eds., pp. 335–358. New York: Plenum Press (1997).
• Peterhans, E. and von der Heydt, R. “Subjective contours: Bridging
the gap between psychophysics and physiology,” Trends Neurosci.
14:112–119 (1991).
• Peters, A. and Rockland, K.S., eds. Cerebral Cortex. Vol. 10. New
York: Plenum Press (1994).
• Pettigrew, J.D. and Miller, S.M. “A ‘sticky’ interhemishperic switch in
bipolar disorder?” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 265:2141–2148
• Philbeck, J.W. and Loomis, J.M. “Comparisons of two indicators of
perceived egocentric distance under full-cue and reduced-cue conditions,”
J. Exp. Psychology: Human Perception & Performance 23:72–
85 (1997).
• Pickersgill, M.J. “On knowing with which eye one is seeing,” Quart.
J. Exp. Psychol. 13:168–172 (1961).
• Pitts, W. and McCulloch, W.S. “How we know universals: The perception
of auditory and visual forms,” Bull. Math. Biophysics 9:127–
147 (1947).
• Plum, F. and Posner, J.B. The Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma. 3rd
ed. Philadelphia: FA Davis (1983).
• Pochon, J.-B., Levy, R., Poline, J.-B., Crozier, S., Leh´ericy, S., Pillon,
B., Deweer, B., Le Bihan, D., and Dubois, B. “The role of dorsolateral
prefrontal cortex in the preparation of forthcoming actions: An fMRI
study,” Cerebral Cortex 11:260–266 (2001).
• Poggio, G.F. and Poggio, T. “The analysis of stereopsis,” Ann. Rev.
Neurosci. 7:379–412 (1984).
• Poggio, T. “A theory of how the brain might work,” Cold Spring
Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 55:899–910 (1990).
• Poggio, T., Torre, V., and Koch, C. “Computational vision and regularization
theory,” Nature 317:314–319 (1985).
• Poincar´e, H. “Mathematical discovery.” In: Science and Method. pp.
46–63. New York: Dover Books (1952).(邦訳)吉田洋一訳,科学と
• Pollen, D.A. “Cortical areas in visual awareness,” Nature 377:293–294
• Pollen, D.A. “On the neural correlates of visual perception,” Cerebral
Cortex 9:4–19 (1999).
• Pollen, D.A. “Explicit neural representations, recursive neural networks
and conscious visual perception,” Cerebral Cortex 13:807–814
• Polonsky, A., Blake, R., Braun, J., and Heeger, D. “Neuronal activity
in human primary visual cortex correlates with perception during
binocular rivalry,” Nature Neurosci. 3:1153–1159 (2000).
• Polyak, S.L. The Retina. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
• P¨oppel, E. “Time perception.” In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology.
Vol. 8: Perception. Held, R., Leibowitz, H.W., and Teuber, H.-L.
eds., pp. 713–729. Berlin: Springer (1978).
• P¨oppel, E. “A hierarchical model of temporal perception,” Trends
Cogn. Sci. 1:56–61 (1997).
• P¨oppel, E., Held, R., and Frost, D. “Residual visual function after
brain wounds involving the central visual pathways in man,” Nature
243:295–296 (1973).
• P¨oppel, E. and Logothetis, N.K. “Neural oscillations in the brain.
Discontinuous initiations of pursuit eye movements indicate a 30-
Hz temporal framework for visual information processing,” Naturwissenschaften
73:267–268 (1986).
• Popper, K.R. and Eccles, J.C. The Self and its Brain. Berlin: Springer
(1977).(邦訳)大村裕, 西脇与作, 沢田允茂訳,自我と脳,新思索社
• Porac, C. and Coren, S. “Sighting dominance and utrocular discrimination,”
Percept. Psychophys. 39:449–41 (1986).
• Posner, M.I. and Gilbert, C.D. “Attention and primary visual cortex,”
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 16:2585–2587 (1999).
• Posner, M.I., Snyder, C.R.R. and Davidson, B.J. “Attention and the
detection of signals,” J. exp. Psychol.: General 109:160–174 (1980).
• Potter, M.C. “Very short-term conceptual memory,” Memory & Cognition
21:156–161 (1993).
• Potter, M.C. and Levy, E.I. “Recognition memory for a rapid sequence
of pictures,” J. Exp. Psychol. 81:10–15 (1969).
• Pouget, A. and Sejnowski, T.J. “Spatial transformations in the parietal
cortex using basis functions,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 9:222–237
• Preuss, T.M. “What’s human about the human brain?” In: The New
Cognitive Neurosciences. 2nd ed., Gazzaniga, M.S., ed., pp. 1219–
1234. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (2000).
• Preuss, T.M., Qi, H., and Kaas, J.H. “Distinctive compartmental organization
of human primary visual cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
USA 96:11601–11606 (1999).
• Pritchard, R.M., Heron, W., and Hebb, D.O. “Visual perception approached
by the method of stabilized images,” Canad. J. Psychol.
14:67–77 (1960).
• Proffitt, D.R., Bhalla, M., Gossweiler, R., and Midgett, J. “Perceiving
geographical slant,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Rev. 2:409–428 (1995).
• Przybyszewski, A.W., Gaska, J.P., Foote, W., and Pollen, D.A. “Striate
cortex increases contrast gain of macaque LGN neurons,” Visual
Neurosci. 17:485–494 (2000).
• Puccetti, R. The Trial of John and Henry Norton. London: Hutchinson
• Purpura, K.P. and Schiff, N.D. “The thalamic intralaminar nuclei:
Role in visual awareness,” Neuroscientist 3:8–14 (1997).
• Purves, D., Paydarfar, J.A., and Andrews, T.J. “The wagon wheel
illusion in movies and reality,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:3693–
3697 (1996).
• Quinn, J.J., Oommen, S.S., Morrison, G.E., and Fanselow,M.S. “Posttraining
excitotoxic lesions of the dorsal hippocampus attenuate forward
trace, backward trace, and delay fear conditioning in a temporallyspecific
manner,” Hippocampus 12:495–504 (2002).
• Rafal, R.D. “Hemispatial neglect: Cognitive neuropsychological aspects.”
In: Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology. Feinberg,
T.E. and Farah, M.J., eds., pp. 319–336. New York: McGraw-Hill
• Rafal, R.D. “Balint syndrome.” In: Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology.
Feinberg, T.E. and Farah, M.J., eds., pp. 337–356. New
York: McGraw-Hill (1997b).
• Rafal, R.D. and Posner, M. “Deficits in human visual spatial attention
following thalamic lesions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:7349–
7353 (1987).
• Rakic, P. “A small step for the cell, a giant leap for mankind: A hypothesis
of neocortical expansion during evolution,” Trends Neurosci.
18:383–388 (1995).
• Ramachandran, V.S. “Blind spots,” Sci. Am. 266:86–91 (1992).
• Ramachandran, V.S. and Gregory, R.L. “Perceptual filling in of artificially
induced scotomas in human vision,” Nature 350:699–702 (1991).
• Ramachandram, V.S. and Hubbard, E.M. “Psychophysical investigations
into the neural basis of synaesthesia,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B
268:979–983 (2001).
• Ram`on y Cajal, S. “New ideas on the structure of the nervous system
of man and vertebrates.” Translated by Swanson, N. and Swanson,
L.M. fromLes nouvelles id´ees sur la structure du syst`eme nerveux chez
l’homme et chez les vert´ebr´es. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1991).
• Rao, R.P.N. and Ballard, D.H. “Predictive coding in the visual cortex:
A functional interpretation of some extra-classical receptive-field
effects,” Nature Neurosci. 2:79–87 (1999).
• Rao, R.P.N, Olshausen, B.A., and Lewicki, M.S., eds. Probabilistic
Models of the Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (2002).
• Rao, S.C., Rainer, G., and Miller, E.K. “Integration of what and
where in the primate prefrontal cortex,” Science 276:821–824 (1997).
• Ratliff, F. and Hartline, H.K. “The responses of Limulus optic nerve
fibers to patterns of illumination on the receptor mosaic,” J. Gen.
Physiol. 42:1241–1255 (1959).
• Ray, P.G., Meador, K.J., Smith, J.R., Wheless, J.W., Sittenfeld, M.,
and Clifton, G.L. “Cortical stimulation and recording in humans,”
Neurology 52:1044–1049 (1999).
• Reddy, L., Wilken, P., and Koch, C. “Face-gender discrimination in
the near-absence of attention,” J. Vision, in press (2004).
• Rees, G., Friston, K., and Koch, C. “A direct quantitative relationship
between the functional properties of human and macaque V5,” Nature
Neurosci. 3:716–723 (2000).
• Rees, G., Wojciulik, E., Clarke, K., Husain, M., Frith, C., and Driver,
J. “Unconscious activation of visual cortex in the damaged right hemisphere
of a parietal patient with extinction,” Brain 123:1624–1633
• Reeves, A.G., ed. Epilepsy and the Corpus Callosum. New York:
Plenum Press (1985).
• Reingold, E.M. and Merikle, P.M. “On the inter-relatedness of theory
and measurement in the study of unconscious processes,” Mind Lang.
5:9–28 (1990).
• Rempel-Clower, N.L. and Barbas, H. “The laminar pattern of connections
between prefrontal and anterior temporal cortices in the rhesus
monkey is related to cortical structure and function,” Cerebral Cortex
10:851–865 (2000).
• Rensink, R.A. “Seeing, sensing, and scrutinizing,” Vision Res. 40:1469–
1487 (2000a).
• Rensink, R.A. “The dynamic representation of scenes,” Visual Cognition
7:17–42 (2000b).
• Rensink, R.A., O’Regan, J.K., and Clark, J.J. “To see or not to see:
The need for attention to perceive changes in scenes,” Psychological
Sci. 8:368–373 (1997).
• Revonsuo, A. “The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis
of the function of dreaming,” Behav. Brain Sci. 23:877–901
• Revonsuo, A., Johanson, M., Wedlund, J.-E., and Chaplin, J. “The
zombie among us.” In: Beyond Dissociation. Rossetti, Y. and Revonsuo,
A., eds., pp. 331–351. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins
• Revonsuo, A., Wilenius-Emet, M., Kuusela, J., and Lehto, M. “The
neural generation of a unified illusion in human vision,” Neuroreport
8:3867–3870 (1997).
• Reynolds, J.H., Chelazzi, L., and Desimone, R. “Competitive mechanisms
subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4,” J. Neurosci.
19:1736–1753 (1999).
• Reynolds, J.H. and Desimone, R. “The role of neural mechanisms of
attention in solving the binding problem,” Neuron 24:19–29 (1999).
• Rhodes P.A. and Llin´as, R.R. “Apical tuft input efficacy in layer
5 pyramidal cells from rat visual cortex,” J. Physiol. 536:167–187
• Ricci, C. and Blundo, C. “Perception of ambiguous figures after focal
brain lesions,” Neuropsychologia 28:1163–73 (1990).
• Riddoch, M.J. and Humphreys, G.W. “17 + 14 = 41? Three cases of
working memory impairment.” In: Broken Memories: Case Studies
in Memory Impairment. Campbell, R. and Conway, M.A., eds., pp.
253–266. Oxford, UK: Blackwell (1995).
• Ridley, M. Nature Via Nurture. New York: Harper Collins (2003).
• Rieke, F., Warland, D., van Steveninck, R.R.D., and Bialek, W.
Spikes: Exploring the Neural Code. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
• Ritz, R. and Sejnowski, T.J. “Synchronous oscillatory activity in sensory
systems: New vistas on mechanisms,” Curr. Opinion Neurobiol.
7:536–546 (1997).
• Rizzuto, D.S., Madsen, J.R., Bromfield, E.B., Schulze-Bonhage, A.,
Seelig, D., Aschen-brenner-Scheibe, R., and Kahana, M.J. “Reset of
human neocortical oscillations during a working memory task,” Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:7931–7936 (2003).
• Robertson, L. “Binding, spatial attention, and perceptual awareness,”
Nature Rev. Neurosci. 4:93–102 (2003).
• Robertson, I.H. and Marshall, J.C., eds. Unilateral Neglect: Clinical
and Experimental Studies. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum (1993).
• Robertson, L., Treisman, A., Friedman-Hill, S., and Grabowecky,
M. “The interaction of spatial and object pathways: Evidence from
Balint’s syndrome,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 9:295–317 (1997).
• Robinson, D.L. and Cowie, R.J. “The primate pulvinar: Stuctural,
functional, and behavioral components of visual salience.” In: The
Thalamus. Jones, E.G., Steriade, M., and McCormick, D.A., eds., pp.
53–92. Amsterdam: Elsevier (1997).
• Robinson, D.L. and Petersen, S.E. “The pulvinar and visual salience,”
Trends Neurosci. 15:127–132 (1992).
• Rock, I. and Gutman, D. “The effect of inattention on form perception,”
J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Perception & Performance 7:275–285
• Rockel, A.J., Hiorns, R.W., and Powell, T.P.S. “The basic uniformity
in structure of the neocortex,” Brain 103:221–244 (1980).
• Rockland, K.S. “Further evidence for two types of corticopulvinar
neurons,” Neuroreport 5:1865–1868 (1994).
• Rockland, K.S. “Two types of corticopulvinar terminations: Round
(type 2) and elongate (type 1),” J. Comp. Neurol. 368:57–87 (1996).
• Rockland, K.S. “Elements of cortical architecture: Hierarchy revisited.”
In: Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 12. Rockland, K.S., Kaas, J.H., and
Peters, A., eds., pp. 243–293. New York: Plenum Press (1997).
• Rockland, K.S. and Pandya, D.N. “Laminar origins and terminations
of cortical connections of the occipital lobe in the rhesus monkey,”
Brain Res. 179:3–20 (1979).
• Rockland, K.S. and Van Hoesen, G.W. “Direct temporal-occipital
feedback connections to striate cortex (V1) in the macaque monkey,”
Cerebral Cortex 4:300–313 (1994).
• Rodieck, R.W. The First Steps in Seeing. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer
Associates (1998).
• Rodieck, R.W., Binmoeller, K.F., and Dineen, J.T. “Parasol and
midget ganglion cells of the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 233:115–
132 (1985).
• Rodriguez, E., George, N., Lachaux, J.-P., Martinerie, J., Renault, B.,
and Varela, F.J. “Perception’s shadow: Long-distance synchronziation
of human brain activity,” Nature 397:430–433 (1999).
• Roe, A.W. and Ts’o, D.Y. “The functional architecture of area V2
in the macaque monkey: Physiology, topography, and connectivity.”
In Cerebral Cortex, Vol 12: Extrastriate Cortex in Primates, Rockland,
K.S., Kaas, J.H., and Peters, A., eds., pp. 295–334. New York:
Plenum Press (1997).
• Roelfsema, P.R., Lamme, V.A.F., and Spekreijse, H. “Oject-based
attention in the primary visual cortex of the macaque monkey,” Nature
395:376–381 (1998).
• Rolls, E.T. “Spatial view cells and the representation of place in the
primate hippocampus,” Hippocampus 9:467–480 (1999).
• Rolls, E.T., Aggelopoulos, N.C., and Zheng, F. “The receptive fields
of inferior temporal cortex neurons in natural scenes,” J. Neurosci.
23:339–348 (2003).
• Rolls, E.T. and Deco, G. Computational Neuroscience of Vision. Oxford,
UK: Oxford University Press (2002).
• Rolls, E.T. and Tovee, M.J. “Processing speed in the cerebral cortex
and the neurophysiology of visual masking,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B
257:9–15 (1994).
• Rolls, E.T. and Tovee, M.J. “The responses of single neurons in the
temporal visual cortical areas of the macaque when more than one
stimulus is present in the receptive field,” Exp. Brain Res. 103:409–
420 (1995).
• Romo, R., Brody, C.D., Hern´andez, A., and Lemus, L. “Neuronal
correlates of parametric working memory in the prefrontal cortex,”
Nature 399:470–473 (1999).
• Roorda, A. and Williams, D.R. “The arrangement of the three cone
classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397:520–522 (1999).
• Rosen, M. and Lunn, J.N., eds. Consciousness, Awareness, and Pain
in General Anaesthesia. London: Butterworths (1987).
• Rossen, R., Kabat, H., and Anderson, J.P. “Acute arrest of cerebral
circulation in man,” Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 50:510–528 (1943).
• Rossetti, Y. “Implicit short-lived motor representations of space in
brain damaged and healthy subjects,” Consc. & Cognition 7:520–558
• Rousselet, G., Fabre-Thorpe, M., and Thorpe, S. “Parallel processing
in high-level visual scene categorization,” Nature Neurosci. 5:629–630
• Ryle, G. The Concept of the Mind London: Hutchinson (1949).(邦
• Sacks, O. Migraine. Rev. ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California
Press (1970).(邦訳)後藤真, 石館宇夫訳,偏頭痛百科,晶文社(1990).
• Sacks, O. Awakenings. New York: E.P. Dutton (1973).(邦訳)石館
康平, 石館宇夫訳,レナードの朝,晶文社(1993).
• Sacks, O. A Leg to Stand On. New York: Summit Books (1984).(邦
• Sacks, O. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. New York:
Harper & Row (1985).(邦訳)高見幸郎, 金沢泰子訳,妻を帽子とまち
• Sacks, O. “The mind’s eye: What the blind see.” The New Yorker,
July 28, pp. 48–59 (2003).
• Saenz, M., Buracas, G.T., and Boynton, G.M. “Global effects of
feature-based attention in human visual cortex,” Nature Neurosci.
5:631–632 (2002).
• Saint-Cyr, J.A., Ungerleider, L.G., and Desimone, R. “Organization
of visual cortical inputs to the striatum and subsequent outputs to the
pallido-nigral complex in the monkey,” J. Compa. Neurol. 298:129–
156 (1990).
• Sakai, K., Watanabe, E., Onodera, Y., Uchida, I., Kato, H., Yamamoto,
E., Koizumi, H., and Miyashita, Y. “Functional mapping of
the human colour centre with echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging,”
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 261:89–98 (1995).
• Saleem, K.S., Suzuki, W., Tanaka, K., and Hashikawa, T. “Connections
between anterior inferotemporal cortex and superior temporal
sulcus regions in the macaque monkey,” J. Neurosci. 20:5083–5101
• Salin, P.-A. and Bullier, J. “Corticocortical connections in the visual
system: Structure and Function,” Physiol. Rev. 75:107–154 (1995).
• Salinas, E. and Abbott, L.F. “Transfer of coded information from
sensory to motor networks,” J. Neurosci. 15:6461–6474 (1995).
• Salinas, E. and Sejnowski, T.J. “Correlated neuronal activity and the
flow of neural information,” Nature Rev. Neurosci. 2:539–550 (2001).
• Salzman, C.D., Murasugi, C.M., Britten, K.H., and Newsome, W.T.
“Microstimulation in visual area MT: Effects on direction discrimination
performance,” J. Neurosci. 12:2331–2355 (1992).
• Salzman, C.D. and Newsome, W.T. “Neural mechanisms for forming
a perceptual decision,” Science 264:231–237 (1994).
• Sammon, P.M. Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner. NewYork,
HarperPrims (1996).
• Sanderson,M.J. “Intercellular waves of communication,” New Physiol.
Sci. 11:262–269 (1996).
• Sanford, A.J. “A periodic basis for perception and action.” In: Biological
Rhythms and Human Performance. Colquhuon, W., ed., pp.
179–209. New York: Academic Press (1971).
• Savic, I. “Imaging of brain activation by odorants in humans,” Curr.
Opinion Neurobiol. 12:455–461 (2002).
• Savic, I., Berglund, H., Gulyas, B., and Roland, P. “Smelling of odorous
sex hormone-like compounds causes sex-differentiated hypothalamic
activations in humans,” Neuron 31:661–668 (2001).
• Sawatari, A. and Callaway, E.M. “Diversity and cell type specificity of
local excitatory connections to neurons in layer 3B of monkey primary
visual cortex,” Neuron 25:459–471 (2000).
• Scalaidhe, S.P., Wilson, F.A., and Goldman-Rakic, P.S. “Areal segregation
of face-processing neurons in prefrontal cortex,” Science 278:1135–
1138 (1997).
• Schall, J.D. “Neural basis of saccadic eye movements in primates.”
In: The Neural Basis of Visual Function. Leventhal, A.G., ed., pp.
388–441. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press (1991).
• Schall, J.D. “Visuomotor areas of the frontal lobe. In: Cerebral Cortex.
Vol. 12. Rockland, K.S., Kaas, J.H., and Peters, A., eds., pp.
527–638. New York: Plenum Press (1997).
• Schall, J.D. “Neural basis of deciding, choosing and acting,” Nature
Rev. Neurosci. 2:33–42 (2001).
• Schank, J.C. “Menstrual-cycle synchrony: Problems and new directions
for research,” J. Comp. Psychology 115:3–15 (2001).
• Schenck, C.H. and Mahowald, M.W. “An analysis of a recent criminal
trial involving sexual misconduct with a child, alcohol abuse and a
successful sleepwalking defence: Arguments supporting two proposed
new forensic categories,” Med. Sci. Law 38:147–152 (1998).
• Schiff, N.D. “The neurology of impaired consciousness: Challenges
for cognitive neuroscience.” In: The New Cognitive Neurosciences.
Gazzaniga, M., ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (2004).
• Schiff, N.D. and Plum, F. “The role of arousal and ‘gating’ systems
in the neurology of impaired consciousness,” J. Clinical Neurophysiol.
17:438–452 (2000).
• Schiffer, F. “Can the different cerebral hemispheres have distinct personalities?
Evidence and its implications for theory and treatment of
PTSD and other disorders?” J. Traum. Dissoc. 1:83–104 (2000).
• Schiller, P.H. and Chou, I.H. “The effects of frontal eye field and
dorsomedial frontal-cortex lesions on visually guided eye-movements,”
Nature Neurosci. 1:248–253 (1998).
• Schiller, P.H. and Logothetis, N.K. “The color-opponent and broadbased
channels of the primate visual system,” Trends Neurosci. 13:392–
398 (1990).
• Schiller, P.H., True, S.D., and Conway, J.L. “Effects of frontal eye
field and superior colliculus ablations on eye movements,” Science
206:590–592 (1979).
• Schlag, J. and Schlag-Rey, M. “Visuomotor functions of central thalamus
in monkey. II. Unit activity related to visual events, targeting,
and fixation,” J. Neurophysiol. 51:1175–1195 (1984).
• Schlag, J. and Schlag-Rey, M. “Through the eye, slowly: Delays
and localization errors in the visual system,” Nature Rev. Neurosci.
3:191–215 (2002).
• Schmidt, E.M., Bak, M.J., Hambrecht, F.T., Kufta, C.V., O’Rourke,
D.K., and Vallabhanath, P. “Feasibility of a visual prosthesis for the
blind based on intracortical microstimulation of the visual cortex,”
Brain 119:507–522 (1996).
• Schmolesky, M.T., Wang, Y., Hanes, D.P., Leutgeb, S., Schall, J.B.,
and Leventhal, A.G. “Signal timing across the macaque visual system,”
J. Neurophysiol. 79:3272–3280 (1998).
• Schooler, J.W. and Melcher, J. “The ineffability of insight.” In: The
Creative Cognition Approach. Smith, S.M., Ward, T.B., and Finke,
R.A., eds., pp. 97–133. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1995).
• Schooler, J.W., Ohlsson, S., and Brooks, K. “Thoughts beyond words:
When language overshadows insight,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 122:166–
183 (1993).
• Schr¨odinger, E.What Is Life? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
Press (1944).(邦訳)岡小天, 鎮目恭夫共訳,生命とは何か: 物理学者
• Scoville, W.B. and Milner, B. “Loss of recent memory after bilateral
hippocampal lesions,” J. Neurochem. 20:11–21 (1957).
• Searle, J.R. The Mystery of Consciousness. NewYork: TheNewYork
Review of Books (1997).
• Searle, J.R. “Consciousness,” Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 23:557–578 (2000).
• Seckel, A. The Art of Optical Illusions. Carlton Books (2000).
• Seckel, A. More Optical Illusions. Carlton Books (2002).
• Sennholz, G. “Bispectral analysis technology and equipment,” Minerva
Anestesiol. 66:386–388 (2000).
• Shadlen, M.N., Britten, K.H., Newsome, W.T., and Movshon, J.A.
“A computational analysis of the relationship between neuronal and
behavioral responses to visual motion,” J. Neurosci. 16:1486–1510
• Shadlen, M.N. and Movshon, J.A. “Synchrony unbound: A critical
evaluation of the temporal binding hypothesis,” Neuron 24:67–77
• Shallice, T. From Neuropsychology to Mental Structure. Cambridge,
UK: Cambridge University Press (1988).
• Shapley, R. and Ringach, D. “Dynamics of responses in visual cortex.”
In: The New Cognitive Neurosciences. 2nd ed., Gazzaniga, M.S., ed.,
pp. 253–261. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (2000).
• Shear, J., ed. Explaining Consciousness: The Hard Problem. Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press (1997).
• Sheinberg, D.L. and Logothetis, N.K. “The role of temporal cortical
areas in perceptual organization,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
94:3408–3413 (1997).
• Sheinberg, D.L. and Logothetis, N.K. “Noticing familiar objects in
real world scenes: The role of temporal cortical neurons in natural
vision,” J. Neurosci. 15:1340–1350 (2001).
• Sheliga, B.M., Riggio, L., and Rizzolatti, G. “Orienting of attention
and eye movements,” Exp. Brain Res. 98:507–522 (1994).
• Shepherd, G.M. Foundations of the Neuron Doctrine. NewYork: Oxford
University Press (1991).
• Shepherd, M., Findlay, J.M., and Hockey, R.J. “The relationship between
eye movements and spatial attention,” Quart. J. Exp. Psychol.
38:475–491 (1986).
• Sherk, H. “The claustrum.” In: Cerebral Cortex Vol. 5. Jones, E.G.
and Peters, A., eds., pp. 467–499. New York: Plenum (1986).
• Sherman, S.M. and Guillery, R. Exploring the Thalamus. San Diego,
CA: Academic Press (2001).
• Sherman, S.M. and Koch, C. “Thalamus.” In: The Synaptic Organization
of the Brain. 4th ed., Shepherd, G. ed., pp. 289–328. New
York: Oxford University Press (1998).
• Sheth, B.R., Nijhawan, R., and Shimojo, S. “Changing objects lead
briefly flashed ones,” Nature Neurosci. 3:489–495 (2000).
• Shimojo, S., Tanaka, Y., and Watanabe, K. “Stimulus-driven facilitation
and inhibition of visual information processing in environmental
and retinotopic representations of space,” Brain Res. Cogn. Brain
Res. 5:11–21 (1996).
• Siegel, J.M. “Nacrolepsy,” Scientific American 282:76–81 (2000).
• Siewert, C.P. The Significance of Consciousness. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press (1998).
• Simons, D.J. and Chabris, C.F. “Gorillas in our midst: Sustained
inattentional blindness for dynamic events,” Perception 28:1059–1074
• Simons, D.J. and Levin, D.T. “Change blindness,” Trends Cogn. Sci.
1:261–267 (1997).
• Simons, D.J. and Levin, D.T. “Failure to detect changes to people
during a real-world interaction,” Psychonomic Bull. & Rev. 5:644–
649 (1998).
• Simpson, J. Touching the Void. New York: HarperPerennial (1988).
• Singer, W. “Neuronal synchrony: A versatile code for the definition
of relations?” Neuron 24:49–65 (1999).
• Skoyles, J.R. “Another variety of vision,” Trends Neurosci. 20:22–23
• Slimko, E.M., McKinney, S., Anderson, D.J., Davidson, N., and Lester,
H.A. “Selective electrical silencing of mammalian neurons in vitro by
the use of invertebrate ligand-gated chloride channels,” J. Neurosci.
22:7373–7379 (2002).
• Smith, S. “Utrocular, or ‘which eye’ discrimination,” J. Exp. Psychology
35:1–14 (1945).
• Snyder, L.H., Batista, A.P., and Andersen, R.A. “Intention-related activity
in the posterior parietal cortex: A review,” Vis. Res. 40:1433–
1441 (2000).
• Sobel, E.S. and Tank, D.W. “In vivo Ca2+ dynamics in a cricket auditory
neuron: An example of chemical computation,” Science 263:823–
826 (1994).
• Sobel, N., Prabhakaran, V., Hartely, C.A., Desmond, J.E., Glover,
G.H., Sullivan, E.V., and Gabrieli, D.E. “Blindsmell: Brain activation
induced by an undetected air-borne chemical,” Brain 122:209–217
• Softky, W.R. “Simple codes versus efficient codes,” Curr. Opinion
Neurobiol. 5:239–247 (1995).
• Solms, M. The Neuropsychology of Dreams. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum (1997).
• Somers, D.C., Dale, A.M., Seiffert, A.E., and Tootell, R.B. “Functional
MRI reveals spatially specific attentional modulation in human
primary visual cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1663–1668
• Sperling, G. “The information available in brief presentation,” Psychological
Monographs 74. Whole No. 498 (1960).
• Sperling, G. and Dosher, B. “Strategy and optimization in human information
processing.” In: Handbook of Perception and Performance
Vol. 1. Boff, K., Kaufman, L., and Thomas, J., eds., pp. 1–65. New
York: Wiley (1986).
• Sperling, G. andWeichselgartner, E. “Episodic theory of the dynamics
of spatial attention,” Psych. Rev. 102:503–532 (1995).
• Sperry, R.W. “Cerebral organization and behavior,” Science 133:1749–
1757 (1961).
• Sperry, R.W. “Lateral specialization in the surgically separated hemispheres.”
In: Neuroscience 3rd Study Program. Schmitt, F.O. and
Worden, F.G., eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1974).
• Spinelli, D.W., Pribram, K.H., andWeingarten, M. “Centrifugal optic
nerve responses evoked by auditory and somatic stimulation,” Exp.
Neurol. 12:303–318 (1965).
• Sprague, J.M. “Interaction of cortex and superior colliculus in mediation
of visually guided behavior in the cat,” Science 153:1544–1547
• Squire, L.R. and Kandel, E.R. Memory: From Mind to Molecules.
New York: Scientific American Library, Freeman (1999).
• Standing, L. “Learning 10,000 pictures,” Quart. J. Exp. Psychol.
25:207–222 (1973).
• Stapledon, O. Star Maker. New York: Dover Publications (1937).
• Steinmetz, P.N., Roy, A., Fitzgerald, P.J., Hsiao, S.S., Johnson, K.O.,
and Niebur, E. “Attention modulates synchronized neuronal firing in
primary somatosensory cortex,” Nature 404:187–190 (2000).
• Steriade, M. and McCarley, R.W. Brainstem Control of Wakefullness
and Sleep. New York: Plenum Press (1990).
• Stern, K. and McClintock, M.K. “Regulation of ovulation by human
pheromones,” Nature 392:177–179 (1998).
• Sternberg, E.M. “Piercing together a puzzling world: Memento,” Science
292:1661–1662 (2001).
• Sternberg, S. “High-speed scanning in human memory,” Science 153:652–
654 (1966).
• Stevens, C.F. “Neuronal diversity: Too many cell types for comfort?”
Curr. Biol. 8:R708–R710 (1998).
• Stevens, R. “Western phenomenological approaches to the study of
conscious experience and their implications.” In: Methodologies for
the Study of Consciousness: A New Synthesis. Richardson, J. and
Velmans, M., eds., pp. 100–123. Kalamazoo, MI: Fetzer Institute
• Stoerig, P. and Barth, E. “Low-level phenomenal vision despite unilateral
destruction of primary visual cortex,” Consc. & Cognition
10:574–587 (2001).
• Stoerig, P., Zontanou, A., and Cowey, A. “Aware or unaware: Assessment
of cortical blindness in four men and a monkey,” Cerebral
Cortex 12:565–574 (2002).
• Stopfer, M., Bhagavan, S., Smith, B.H., and Laurent, G. “Impaired
odour discrimination on desynchronization of odour-encoding neural
assemblies,” Nature 390:70–74 (1997).
• Stowers, L., Holy, T.E., Meister, M., Dulac, C., and Koentges, G.
“Loss of sex discrimination and male-male aggression in mice deficient
for TRP2,” Science 295:1493–1500 (2002).
• Strayer, D.L. and Johnston, W.A. “Driven to distraction: Dual-task
studies of simulated driving and conversing on a cellular phone,” Psychol.
Sci. 12:462–466 (2001).
• Stroud, J.M. “The fine structure of psychological time.” In: Information
Theory in Psychology. Quastler, H., ed., pp. 174–205. Glencoe,
IL: Free Press (1956).
• Strawson, G. Mental Reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1996).
• Sup`er, H., Spekreijse, H., and Lamme, V.A.F. “Two distinct modes of
sensory processing observed in monkey primary visual cortex,” Nature
Neurosci. 4:304–310 (2001).
• Swick, D. and Knight, R.T. “Cortical lesions and attention.” In: The
Attentive Brain. Parasurama R., ed., pp. 143–161. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press (1998).
• Swindale, N.V. “How many maps are there in visual cortex,” Cerebral
Cortex 10:633–643 (2000).
• Tallal, P., Merzenich, M., Miller, S., and Jenkins, W. “Language learning
impairment: Integrating basic science, technology and remediation,”
Exp. Brain Res. 123:210–219 (1998).
• Tallon-Baudry, C. and Bertrand, O. “Oscillatory gamma activity in
humans and its role in object representation,” Trends Cogn. Sci.
3:151–161 (1999).